The Word BAYYINA means clarify or Proclaim and it does NOT mean to give “extra explanations” as misunderstood by the Man Made Hadiths proponents who believe Prophet gave extra explanations of the Quran in form of Man Made Hadiths.
The Proponents of Hadith site the following Ayah for their position:
“And We did not send before you any but men to whom We sent revelation– so ask the followers of the Reminder < Ahlul Dhikr> if you do not know– With clear arguments and scriptures; and We have revealed to you the Reminder <Az-Dhikr> that you may make clear <litubayyina> to people what has been revealed to them, and that haply they may reflect.” (16:43-44)
The word Dhikr with which the Messenger is making things clear is the Qur’an itself. Dhikr is an attribute of the Quran.
“We have revealed to you a Book, which is a Dhikr (Reminder) for you: will you not then use your Aqal?” (21:10)
But sick hearts need more medicine. So we will now look at this misunderstood word “Bayyina” used in 16:44 and see that the Bayyina or Clarity that the Messenger was to bring was from the Qur’an. We first observe that another verse similar to 16:44 is revealed by Allah:
“And We sent down the BOOK to you for the express purpose that you should make clear to them <litubayyina> those things in which they differ, and that it should be a Guide and a Mercy to those who believe” (16: 64)
Here we notice that Allah has explicitly mentioned that the PURPOSE of the BOOK is to provide the Prophet with revelation so that he may <litubayyina> make clear the things that people differ in. This verse yet again establishes that the Prophetic clarification is to come from THE BOOK.
And Allah further confirms that on the day of judgment the Prophet Muhammad will be a WITNESS AGAINST HIS PEOPLE for ignoring the “Bayyinna” he was giving to them from the BOOK:
“One Day We shall raise from all peoples a witness against them, from amongst themselves: and We shall bring you as a witness against these (your people); and We have sent down to you the Book CLARIFYING ALL things <tabayyina likulli shai’>, a Guide, a Mercy, and glad tidings to Muslims” (16:89)
This Ayaah leaves no doubt that the BOOK has clarification <tabayyina> of ALL THINGS<Likulli Shai>.
Thus further destabilizing the false claim that the Messenger is giving extra explanations from outside of the Qur’an. If the Qur’an itself is clarifying ALL THINGS, then what is the Messenger doing by giving “extra” explanations. If the Messenger is making extra explanations outside of the Qur’an, then logically that would mean that the Qur’an is NOT clarifying ALL THINGS. This, then obviously contradicts the above Qur’anic claim.
Then in the following Ayah Allah again tells us that the Clarity that Allah reveals is in the Book:
“Those who conceal the revealed clarity <bayyinati> and the Guidance <al-Huda>, after We have made it Clear <bayyinahu> for the people in The Book – on them shall be Allah’s curse, and the curse of those entitled to curse” (2:159)
Thus it is Allah Who has clarified all things for us in the Qur’an, and the Messenger is bringing that clarification to us (that is what the word “Messenger” means, i.e. one who brings a Message). But the Messenger is not making extra explanations from outside of the Book of Allah. Later we will see an example of how the Messenger clarified a certain Verse by referencing other verses of the Qur’an. For now, we will continue exploring the meaning of the word Bayyina as described within the Qur’an.
In the following Verse Allah further explains that the Clarity and The Guidance is in the Qur’an:
“Full Moon of the scorching heat in which was sent down the Qur’an, as a Guide <Huda> to humankind and as a Clarity <Bayyinatin> for The Guidance <al-Huda> and The Criterion <al-Furqaan>….” (2:185)
If the Qur’an contains clarity and is supposed to “Clarify ALL THINGS”, then would that be logical to assume that the Book itself needs to be “clarified” by obscure books of Hadith written about 200 years after the Prophet?
There are many places in the Qur’an where Allah has explicitly mentioned that the Clarity <Bayyina> is the Verses that He reveals to His Messenger. Here are a few examples where Bayyina is directly related to the Qur’an:
“Do they not earnestly seek to understand the Qur’an, or are their hearts locked up by them? Those who turn back as apostates after The Guidance <Al-Huda> is made Clear <tabayyina> – the shaitaan has instigated them and buoyoud them up with false hopes” (47: 24-25)
“And We have sent down <anzalna> to you the Clarifying Verses <Ayaatim Bayyinatin>; and none rejects them but those who are perverse” (2:99)
“Or lest you should say: If the Book had only been sent down to us, we should have followed its Guidance better than they. Now has come to you Clarity <Bayyinatun> from your Lord – and a Guide and a mercy….” (6:157)
These Ayaat establish that Clarity comes from Allah in His Book, which is what the Messenger is told to use to Clarify and Proclaim what is being revealed to the people. There is not an iota of truth to the claim that the Messenger is to give extra clarification <Bayyina>, which is NOT in the Book. But the proponents of Hadith shout and cry and insist that the Messenger is supposed to give EXTRA clarification, and the strange thing is that after all of the above evidence, they still insist that when Allah says <litubayyina> in 16:44 He means EXTRA Clarifications OUTSIDE of the Book. Let us see how true are they to this claim of theirs. We see that the EXACT same form of the word “Bayyina” is used in another Ayah:
“And remember Allah took a Covenant from the People of the Book to make it clear <litubayyinunahu> to humans, and not to hide it <la tuktumunahu>; but they threw it away behind their backs, and purchased with it some miserable gain! And vile was the bargain they made” (3:187)
Here Allah clearly establishes that the meaning of the word Bayyina is to “proclaim or clarify” and NOT to give “extra explanations” as “litubayyinunahu” is used as an opposite to “tuktumunahu”, which means to hide. If the meaning in 16:44 were to give EXTRA EXPLANATIONS, then in 3:187 it would mean that ALL the people of the Book were told by Allah to give EXTRA EXPLANATIONS. Thus, logically we now have to look for the Hadith of the people of the Book to find those extra explanations.
Quran Chapter 75 verse 16-19
Do not move your tongue with it (Quran) to make haste.
Ineed It is upon us to collect it and its recitation.
So when We recite it, you shall follow its revelation.
Then indeed upon us its clarification (Bayanahu).
Finally Allah cautioning the Prophet and said that the clarification (Bayanahu) of the Quran through the Quran is upon Allah himself. So it is clear that Bayanahu does not mean extra explanations of the Quran given by Prophet Muhammad but the Quran verses clarify other verses.
We see that the duty of the Messenger was not just to deliver the Qur’an like a postman, but also to make things clear to the people. The methodology of the Messenger was to explain or give Tafsir of the Qur’anic Ayaat with OTHER Qur’anic Ayaat. I conclude from the Verse that establishes that the Messengers lectures <Daras> making clarifications <bayyina> consisted of reading the verses of the Quraan:
“And thus do We repeat the verses and that they may say: You have given the Daras (lecture); and that We may make it clear (Linubayyinahu) to a people who know.” (6:108)