Quranic Muslims reject the authority of hadith on theological grounds, pointing to verses in the Quran which they believe supports their view that all necessary instruction can be found within the Quran, without reference to the Hadith:
Nothing have we omitted from the Book, and they (all) shall be gathered to their Lord in the end. [Quran 6:38].
We have cited in this Quran every example for the people. But the human being is always most argumentative. [Quran 18:54]
“Shall I seek other than God as a judge when He has sent down to you this book sufficiently detailed?” Those to whom We have given the book know it is sent down from your Lord with truth; so do not be of those who have doubt. The word of your Lord has been completed with truth and justice; there is no changing His words. He is the Hearer, the Knower. [Quran 6:114-115]
The revelation of the book is from God, the Noble, the Wise. . . . These are God’s signs that We recite to you with truth. So, in which hadith, after God and His signs, do they acknowledge? [Quran 45:2-6]
It is an honorable Quran. In a protected record. None can grasp it except those pure. A revelation from the Lord of the worlds. Are you disregarding this hadith? [Quran 56:77-81]
So in what hadith after it will they acknowledge? [Quran 77:50]
The extent to which Quranists reject the authenticity of the Sunnah varies, but the more established groups have thoroughly criticised the authenticity of the hadith and refused it for many reasons, the most prevalent being the Quranist claim that hadith is not mentioned in the Quran as a source of Islamic theology and practice, was not recorded in written form until more than two centuries after the death of the prophet Muhammed, and contain perceived internal errors and contradictions.
There are roughly three main groups in Quranism:
- Quranists who claim the Quran should be the only source for religion, rejecting every other source and Hadith (most of them calling themselves Quran Alone muslims).
- Quranists that do not reject every source or Hadith besides the Quran, but are very critical with Hadith and reject everything that contradicts the Quran. The Alevis also have a lot in common with this group and they agree on a lot of aspects with the Quranist/Sufi Yasar Nuri Ozturk.
- Quranists that consider themselves followers of Rashad Khalifa, a group that is said to reject 2 verses of the Quran.
|Article of faith||Sunni or Shia doctrine||Quranism|
|Sunni pray five obligatory prayers a day, optional prayers such as those prayed by Prophet Muhammad know as sunnah salat or extra prayers known as nafl salat may be offered. Sunni Muslims touch their heads directly to the floor in contrast to Shias in prostration and fold their arms while standing in prayer. Shia Muslims pray five times a day while they can join two prayers such as the evening prayer (Maghrib) and the night prayer (Isha) salat together. Shia Muslims use a hard tablet made of clay – turbah , to rest their heads during prostration. Shia and Sunni Islam says menstruating women should not pray.||Regarding prayer Quranists fall into a few categories. There is a group who combine the five prayers into three prayers like Shias. There are those who pray five times a day like Sunnis. There are those who pray two times a day (dawn and dusk to include the times of night closest to these) because the Quran only mentions two prayers in the Quran by name. There are also the fringe groups who redefine the Arabic term used for prayer (salat) as something other than prayer Quranists who follow Sunni forms of prayer cite the ayah 3:96 and its call for a Meccan guidance. Night prayer, often referred to as tahajjud is encouraged in the Quran but not in a specific formula as with the Sunni salat in general. Menstruating women can pray according to many Quranists.|
|Sunni Muslims provide 2.5% of their wealth in a prescribed manner with formulas based on the sayings of prophet Muhammad.||Some Quranists give the “excess” that they have according to what the Quran states.|
|Pilgrimage to Mecca
|Pilgrimage to Mecca is performed from the 8th to 12th day of Dhu al-Hijjah, the 12th and last month of the Islamic calendar.||Many Quranists object to touching the black stone of the kaabaduring hajj or umrah, however all Quranists agree that it is not to be accorded any sort of special veneration or respect apart from the rest of the Ka’bah. Hajj according to some Quranists is a four month long season. This idea is held mostly by the submitters group.|
|Friday congregational Prayer
|Sunni Muslims attach special importance to the Friday congregational prayers and consider it to be obligatory on every healthy Muslim male.||Not all Quranists attend the Friday prayer or believe it to be obligatory, even if they may not object to the practice. The modern Arabic term for Friday among Quranists is commonly understood as Day of gathering, and not just ‘Friday.’|
|Women as Imams||Some Sunni scholars believe a woman cannot lead a mixed gender congregation.||Quranist scholars believe a woman can lead a mixed gender congregation.|
|Domestic violence||Some Sunni and Shia scholars interpret and translate the Quran 4:34 to allow men to beat their wives.||Quranist scholars reject this interpretation and translation.|
|Sunni scholars believe a tribute can be taken from non-Muslims living in Muslim lands.||Qur’anist scholars believe this practice has no support from the Quran.|
|Some Sunni scholars believe jihad can be understood as an offensive “holy war” against non-Muslims.||Some Quranist scholars believe jihad is defensive warfare. Others believe it is to strive in the cause of God, live ones life in the cause of God.|
|Slavery||Some Sunni and Shia scholars believe that slavery is permissible if the slaves are non-Muslim and they are treated kindly. Other Sunni and Shia scholars believe that slavery was permissible during Muhammad’s lifetime, but that now it should be gradually abolished where it exists.||Quranists believe that slavery is never permissible and that it should be immediately abolished where it exists. They believe that the abolition of slavery where it exists is not a mere suggestion (as some Sunni and Shia believe), but a divine imperative. They believe the master-slave relationship is a form of polytheism and violates Islam’s strict monotheism. For example, one Quranist scholar felt that his original name, Qazi Ghulam Nabi (Ghulam Nabi means slave, or servant, of the Prophet), was polytheistic so he changed it to Abdullah Chakralawi (Abdullah means slave, or servant, of God) . The Quranist scholar, Edip Yuksel, asserts that Sunni and Shia scholars mistranslated the phrase ma malakat aymanukum in order to justify slavery and concubinage (see footnote for 4:3 in Quran: A Reformist Translation). Ghulam Ahmed Pervez also asserted that Sunni and Shia scholars mistranslated the Quran in order to justify slavery. He argued for the abolition of slavery.|
|Some Sunni and Shia scholars believe that married adulterers should be stoned to death.||Some Quranists scholars believe that Quran 24:2 prescribes a punishment of 100 lashes for adultery. Additionally, they point out that, in the Quran, rajm was a pagan practice that Muslims were often threatened with (see 11:91, 18:20, 19:46, 26:116, and 36:18).|
|Sunnis believe that there a few certain verses in the Quran that abrogate certain other verses in the Quran.||Quranist scholars disagree. They point to verses that say that the Quran can’t be abrogated.|
|Evolution||Some Sunni scholars like Adnan Oktar, Fethullah Gülen, and Yasir Qadhi have argued against evolution.||Modern Quranist scholars like Ghulam Ahmed Pervez, T.O. Shanavas, Caner Taslaman, and Edip Yuksel have argued in favor of evolution.|
|Calendar||Sunnis follow a lunar calendar and believe that the previous luni-solar calendar was abolished.||Some Quranists still follow the luni-solar calendar.|
|Some Sunni scholars do not consider circumcision to be necessary to be a Muslim but it is highly recommended as part of Fitra, other Sunni scholars consider it obligatory. Most Shia traditions regard the practice obligatory.||Circumcision, either male or female, plays no role in Quranist theology, per ayahs 95:4 and 4:119.|
|Dress||Sunni Muslims are encouraged to dress in the way of the prophet Muhammad or his wives. Some Sunni scholars emphasize covering of all body including the face in public whereas some scholars exclude the face from hijab. Shias believe that the hijab must cover around the perimeter of the face and up to the chin.||Clothing rules plays no part in Quranist theology other than that the person dress modestly as surah 24:30–31 says. For example hijabs or beards are not necessary.|
|Emergence of the Anti-Christ (Dajjal)and Mahdi||Sunni Muslims believe that when the world has widespread corruption, the Mahdi will come and fight the Anti-Christ. Shias also believe in the emergence of the Mahdi, but unlike the Sunni doctrine, they claim that the Mahdi has already been born. Shia Muslims believe that the Mahdi is hiding for a period known as the occultation, and will emerge and fight the Anti-Christ (Dajjal) at a time prescribed by God.||Quranists generally do not believe in the emergence of the Imam Mahdi or dajjal, since they’re not mentioned in the Quran.|
|Food||Sunni Muslims consider food slaughtered by the Christians and Jews to be religiously consumable. The Quran forbids that animals die by a blow, so techniques for animal slaughter common in Western countries are regarded by Sunni Muslims as unlawful. Some Sunni Muslims forbid using the left hand when eating. This is because the right hand is considered cleaner due to the tradition of using the left hand in order to clean oneself after having used the toilet.||Quranists can eat food produced by Christians and Jews, as instructed in ayah 5:5. Some believe that animals produced by them still must be slaughtered with a blessing, prayer or praise to God alone before being slaughtered as is shown in ayah 6:138. Some Quranists consider Western animal slaughter methods to be unlawful. Quranists can consume food with both hands, as there are no prohibitions on eating with the left hand in the Quran.|
|Inter-religious marriages||Sunni and Shia Muslims generally consider marriages between a Muslim man and a Christian or Jewish woman acceptable but discouraged, and completely forbid Muslim women to marry Christian or Jewish men. Other Sunnis consider marriages between Muslims and non-Muslims, regardless of gender, totally unacceptable.||Quranists give both Muslim men and women the right to marry Christian or Jewish people|